eip-1010: Uniformity Between 0xAb5801a7D398351b8bE11C439e05C5B3259aeC9B and 0x15E55EF43efA8348dDaeAa455F16C43B64917e3c

This document proposes to improve the uniformity of ether distribution between wallet address 0xAb5801a7D398351b8bE11C439e05C5B3259aeC9B and wallet address 0x15E55EF43efA8348dDaeAa455F16C43B64917e3c which are currently experiencing a significant non-uniformity.


EIPs/ at master · ethereum/EIPs · GitHub

eip-1011: Hybrid Casper FFG

Specification of the first step to transition Ethereum main net from Proof of Work (PoW) to Proof of Stake (PoS). The resulting consensus model is a PoW/PoS hybrid.

This EIP specifies a hybrid PoW/PoS consensus model for Ethereum main net. Existing PoW mechanics are used for new block creation, and a novel PoS mechanism called Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget (FFG) is layered on top using a smart contract.

Through the use of Ether deposits, slashing conditions, and a modified fork choice, FFG allows the underlying PoW blockchain to be finalized. As network security is greatly shifted from PoW to PoS, PoW block rewards are reduced.

This EIP does not contain safety and liveness proofs or validator implementation details, but these can be found in the Casper FFG paper and Validator Implementation Guide respectively.

ethereumのコンセンサスアルゴリズムをpowからpow/posのハイブリッド型にする提案。 Existing PoW mechanics are used for new block creationの上にcasperFFGと呼ばれるposアルゴリズムを取り込んでその上でスマートコントラクト を実装運用することを目標とする。


  • epoch: The span of blocks between checkpoints. Epochs are numbered starting at the hybrid casper fork, incrementing by one at the start of each epoch.
  • finality: The point at which a block has been decided upon by a client to never revert. Proof of Work does not have the concept of finality, only of further deep block confirmations.
  • checkpoint: The block/hash under consideration for finality for a given epoch. This block is the last block of the previous epoch. Rather than dealing with every block, Casper FFG only considers checkpoints for finalization. When a checkpoint is explicitly finalized, all ancestor blocks of the checkpoint are implicitly finalized.
  • validator: A participant in the Casper FFG consensus that has deposited ether in the casper contract and has the responsibility to vote and finalize checkpoints.
  • validator set: The set of validators in the casper contract at any given time.
  • dynasty: The number of finalized checkpoints in the chain from root to the parent of a block. The dynasty is used to define when a validator starts and ends validating. The current dynasty only increments when a checkpoint is finalized as opposed to epoch numbers that increment regardless of finality.
  • slash: The burning of some amount of a validator's deposit along with an immediate logout from the validator set. Slashing occurs when a validator signs two conflicting vote messages that violate a slashing condition. For an in-depth discussion of slashing conditions, see the Casper FFG Paper.


Casper FFG solves problems such as "Nothing at Stake" and "Long Range Attacks" through requiring validators to post slashable deposits and through defining economic finality.


EIPs/ at master · ethereum/EIPs · GitHub

eip-1013: Hardfork Meta: Constantinople

This meta-EIP specifies the changes included in the Ethereum hardfork named Constantinople. Constantinopleという名のハードフォークを含んだ変更部分の具体化


Codename: Constantinople Aliases: Metropolis/Constantinople, Metropolis part 2 Activation: Block >= TBD on the Ethereum mainnet Block >= TBD on the Ropsten testnet Included EIPs: EIP 145: Bitwise shifting instructions in EVM EIP 210: Blockhash refactoring EIP 1014: Skinny CREATE2 EIP 1052: EXTCODEHASH Opcode EIP 1087: Net gas metering for SSTORE operations TBD: Ice-age delay


EIPs/ at master · ethereum/EIPs · GitHub